By Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, Donald R. Kelley, Bonnie G. Smith
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The unscientific forces are of a supernatural makeup, they are transcendent spirits, gods, forces, little and big goblins. The original conception of causes is an anthropomorphic one. In a state of inexperience, man measures the objective by a subjective standard, judges the world by himself. Just as he creates things with conscious intent, so he attributes to nature his human manner, imagines the existence of an external and creative cause of the phenomena of sense per ception, similar to himself who is the special cause of his own creations.
Nature of Human Brain Work : An Introduction to Dialectics. Oakland, CA, USA: PM Press, 2010. p 34. id=10400611&ppg=35 THE NATURE OF HUAIAN BRAIN WORK refer to the nature of a thing as a phenomenon in the same way in which we referred to the mind as a perception of the senses, and we shall demonstrate further on that every being is a phenomenon, and every phenomenon is more or less of an essential thing. We have seen that the faculty of thought requires for its vital activity an object, or raw material.
We see modern investigators marching toward their goal with firm and uniform steps, so far as physical matters are concerned. But they aimlessly grope around in the abstract relations of these things. The inductive method has been practically adopted by natural science and its successes have secured a great reputation for it. On the other hand, the specula tive method has become discredited by its failures. There is, however, no conscious understanding of these various methods of thought. We see the men of physical research, when they are outside of their special field, offer lawyer-like speculations in lieu of scientific facts.