By Ian Simmers
On the way to offer water defense within the twenty-first century, there's common contract continuation of present guidelines and extrapolation of developments isn't an alternative. additionally transparent is that from either water offer and improvement views, the world's arid and semi-arid areas are these presently and possibly experiencing the top water stresses. One 3rd of the world's land floor is classed as arid or semi-arid, and approximately half all nations are without delay affected not directly via difficulties of aridity. The hydrology of arid and semi-arid components can be recognized to be considerably diverse from that during extra humid areas. it's hence crucial that research equipment acceptable to the previous are built and utilized, and that concepts for arid and semi-arid zone water assets improvement recognize the primary features of in-situ hydrological procedures.
Read or Download Understanding Water in a Dry Environment: Hydrological Processes in Arid and Semi-arid Zones (Iah International Contributions to Hydrogeology, 23) PDF
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Additional info for Understanding Water in a Dry Environment: Hydrological Processes in Arid and Semi-arid Zones (Iah International Contributions to Hydrogeology, 23)
These areas include the Mediterranean region, California, central Chile, southern Africa including Namibia, Botswana and parts of South Africa, and western and central Australia. 2 (taken from Landsberg & Schloemer 1967) illustrates the major dry climates of the world. The figure also shows the direction of major ocean currents, which additionally affect the aridity of adjacent land areas. It should be noted that aridity increases in generally dry areas as distance from the oceans increases. Finally, Landsberg and Schloemer (1967) demonstrate that mountainous terrains near coastal areas with onshore winds experience rainfall increases on the windward side, and a very rapid decline to semi-arid and arid conditions in the lee of the mountains.
It may be noted that such timing is optimal in that it minimizes evaporation losses, which may be significant in such arid environments. By contrast, most high-intensity rainfall events in the more humid coastal region of Israel occur during the night between 9 pm and 3 am and are ascribed to land–sea temperature differences and to the convergent flow of nocturnal land breezes in the region. Detailed studies of rainfall mechanisms, areal variation in rainfall intensity and network design in desert regions have been carried out by Sharon (1970, 1972a,b).
Singh et al. (1992) and Sharma (1997) describe rainfall patterns in the arid zone of India. Rainfall regimes in arid and semi-arid parts of Africa are described by Shinoda (1990, 1992), Hutchinson (1992), Nicholson (1994), Muchane (1996), Shinoda and Kawamura (1996), Paturel et al. (1998), Amissah-Arthur and Jagtap (1999), and Sen and Eljadid (1999). To illustrate rainfall characteristics in arid and semi-arid regions, we describe rainfall regimes in Australia and Israel in more detail in the following sections.