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By Earl Hopper

Drawing on options and knowledge from psychoanalysis, team research and sociology, this quantity develops Earl Hopper's conception of the fourth uncomplicated assumption within the subconscious lifetime of teams and group-like social platforms. Earl Hopper applies his idea of Incohesion to the remedy of "difficult" sufferers in crew research. Illustrated with specified scientific vignettes from teams together with drug addicts, sufferers of incest and sexual abuse, and baby survivors of the Shoah and concluding with serious commentaries via senior British and American crew analysts and psychoanalysts.

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Read or Download Traumatic Experience in the Unconscious Life of Groups: The Fourth Basic Assumption: Incohesion: Aggregation Massification or (ba) I:A M (International Library of Group Analysis, 23) PDF

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Additional resources for Traumatic Experience in the Unconscious Life of Groups: The Fourth Basic Assumption: Incohesion: Aggregation Massification or (ba) I:A M (International Library of Group Analysis, 23)

Example text

They match their idealization of the leader with efforts to extract knowledge, power and goodness from him. The group members are thus both forever greedy and forever dissatisfied. THE THEORY OF COHESION PROPOSED BY BION AND TURQUET… 31 When the leader fails to live up to their ideal, they react first with denial and then by rapidly and completely devaluing the leader and searching for a substitute. Thus, primitive idealization, projected omnipotence, denial, envy and greed, together with their accompanying defenses, characterize the basic Dependency group.

In a series of papers (a collection of which were published in 1998 as Ideology, Conflict, and Leadership in Groups and Organizations) he introduced the theory of basic assumptions to psychoanalysts, whose understanding of group dynamics was based almost entirely on Freud’s Totem and Taboo (1913) and Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego (1921). He also clarified Bion’s argument and made slight but significant modifications to it. With a degree of editorial licence, I will summarise Kernberg’s contribution to our understanding of what he would call the dynamics of ‘mass psychology’, which in essence develops as a defence against disintegration and the sources of it: (a) Drawing from the work of Klein (1946), as well as Fairbairn (1954), Erikson (1956), Jacobson (1964) and Mahler and Furer (1968), and his own version of object relations theory, Kernberg stresses that basic assumption processes originate in pre-Oedipal anxieties and defences in the context of early object relations.

Bion, W. (1940s and 1950s) Sexuality Aggression (possibly the defence of territory) Prolonged dependence (possibly attachment in the sense of the term as used by Bowlby) 2. Many authors of a ‘Freudian’ persuasion Regression to: Phallic/genital phase of development Anal phase of development Oral phase of development 3. Bion, W. (1961) as understood by Hopper, E. (1980 and subsequently) Psychotic anxieties and defences, defined in terms of Kleinian metapsychology: Pairing Sexuality and erotisation as a manic defence against anxieties associated with the depressive position Denigration as a consequence of split-off Fight/Flight and projected hatred arising from the anxiety inherent in the paranoid-schizoid position based on innate malign envy arising from the putative death instinct Idealisation as a consequence of split-off Dependency needs to bond with the mother and her body, and to ensure reciprocal responses, as a way of protecting oneself and one’s internal objects from retaliation from external objects into whom envy has been projected 4.

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