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By W. T. Singleton

Protecting the mental facets of ergonomics, this quantity locations huge emphasis at the radical adjustments in paintings practices during the last 20 years prompted via excessive know-how platforms and computerization. Ergonomics is a multidisciplinary job involved regularly with humans at paintings, but in addition with different human useful actions reminiscent of warfare, activities, video games and rest. the target of ergonomics is to make those actions more beneficial and more secure by way of employing demonstrated ideas of anatomy, body structure and psychology. including Singleton's previous quantity, The physique at paintings, this e-book kinds a entire textbook of ergonomics. it is a precious textual content for undergraduate and graduate scholars of psychology, body structure, administration, social sciences, engineering, commercial layout, desktop technology and data know-how.

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12. 3 Principles, methods and procedures 31 associated with the mind at work. This is daunting but it is also challenging and stimulating. 1 Principles, methods and procedures Education, work and leisure Virtually all human societies have developed the principle that the pattern of personal activity should change with age. In the early years there is extensive leisure devoted to play in which the basic manipulative and social skills are developed. There is also more formalised learning through an educational system which concentrates mainly on information processing: reading, writing and arithmetic and more elaborate symbolic and organisational skills.

The system itself can be described as a set of functions necessary for the overall purpose. The emphasis on defining the system in terms of its purposes or objectives and analysing it in terms of its functions are the characteristics of the systems approach. 13 Principles, methods and procedures 35 It follows that at some stage in the design process it should be useful to consider how the various functions are most effectively allocated - to man or to machine. Fig. 2 shows the essentials of the system design process but since feed-back paths are omitted this figure does not indicate either the repetition and iteration which goes on in operational design or the different possible priorities and variability in the order of decision-making.

The remedy is a compromise in which activity in one sub-system such as that which incorporates work is studied but in the context of sensitivity to external influences. Systems theory can be applied in many ways to behaviour at work. The two main theories emphasise respectively interactions with other people; sociotechnical systems and interactions with machines; man-machine systems. 2 Socio-technical systems In the period of technological innovation following the second world war a group of human relations specialists, working from the Tavistock Institute in London, noted that the social behaviour of workers and their organisational structure in groups and teams was influenced by the technical systems associated with that work.

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