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Download The Logic of Being: Historical Studies by Charles H. Kahn (auth.), Simo Knuuttila, Jaakko Hintikka PDF

By Charles H. Kahn (auth.), Simo Knuuttila, Jaakko Hintikka (eds.)

The final 20 years have noticeable awesome advancements in our realizing of the way the traditional Greek thinkers dealt with the final proposal of being and its numerous kinds. the main normal exam of the that means of the Greek verb 'esti'/'einai'/'on' either in universal utilization and within the philosophical literature has been offered by way of Charles H. Kahn, such a lot broadly in his 1973 publication The Verb 'Be' in historic Greek. those discussions are summarized in Kahn's contribution to this quantity. most of the time, they exhibit that conceptual schemes by way of which philosophers have lately approached Greek concept haven't been rather well suited for the way in which the idea that of being was once really utilized by the ancients. For something, being within the feel of lifestyles performed a truly small position in Greek considering in accordance with Kahn. much more importantly, Kahn has argued that Frege and Russell's thesis that verbs for being, corresponding to 'esti', are multiply ambiguous is unwell suited to the aim of appreciating the particular conceptual assumptions of the Greek thinkers. Frege and Russell claimed verb like 'is' or'esti' is ambiguous among the 'is' of id, the 'is' of lifestyles, the copulative 'is', and the standard 'is' (the 'is' of class-inclusion). at the least a few generations of students have depended on this thesis and fre­ quently criticized sundry ancients for complicated those diversified senses of 'esti' with each one other.

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TO aft Xo/Ta TO/UTa WUo/VTWS fXOV for Forms as object of knowledge at Rep. VI, 484B 4 (cf. ), which is immediately picked up by TO OV with veridical overtones (T~ ovn) at 484C 6: "those who are veritably deprived of the knowledge of the veritable being of things" (Shorey). Thus at 485B;2 ExfLVT/ ;, ouuLO/I;, ad oJu

This makes clt:ar the sense in which predication is more than a syntactic notion. 15 For the stative-mutative contrast see' Be' , pp. 194 - 198, following Lyons, Introduction to Theoretical Linguistics, pp. 397ff. Compare Benveniste, Problemes de linguistique generale, p. 198: "etre' ... est ... un verbe d'etat, ... est meme par excellence Ie verbe d'etat" . The durative aspect emerges as a distinct "sense" of the verb in the Type I ("vital") use with persons, where einai means "continue (in life), survive": eti eisi "they are still alive", theoi aiei eontes "the gods who live forever".

W(lIv "(Nicias) fearing that this messengers might not report the facts (sent a written letter)". For additional examples, see 'Be', pp. 335 - 355. l41: "I would not take this from report: it is,/ And my heart breaks at it". The idiom is still alive and well in contemporary speech: "Tell it like it is" . 'Be', p. 332, Note 2. For the distinction between the intentional it-is-so of judgment and statement and the objective being-so of things in the world, see my article in Phronesis 26 (1981) 126f.

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