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Contains both civil (B 2,4, 5) and ritual (A 21, 34) offences. Evildoers, whatever the evil, violate the law of Re, 8a. Those who neglect to punish the wicked will themselves be punished by the god (Shamash) 117a. The law of Hammurabi is the law of Sham ash, 178 b. See above, n. 39. , Enlil 95 a, the Hattian sun god 400 b, Hittite gods generally 208 a, Marduk 266 b, 315 b. For the general presupposition see esp. the prayer to any god or goddess, 391 a ff. (cf. sup. n. 9). Gods reward their worshipers: Ahuramazda 317 a, Egyptian gods (even non· Egyptian rulers) 27 b, Hittite deities 396 a, Marduk 315 b.

It is clear that many important characteristics of Israelite literature and religion, characteristics that distinguish the Israelite tradition sharply from those of Egypt and Mesopotamia (for instance, the jealousy of the deity, the hostility to images, the peculiar development of prophecy) are not included in the preceding list. They are not there because they do not seem to follow as consequences from basic historical facts. Nor does the given list pretend to be complete; it contains only some of the important peculiarities which are probably explicable from the geography and history of Israel.

Nor does the given list pretend to be complete; it contains only some of the important peculiarities which are probably explicable from the geography and history of Israel. CHAPTER THREE There is a likelihood that these explicable peculiarities were characteristic of Israelite literature as a whole, or with only minor exceptions, since they resulted from causes operating on the whole of it. Peculiarities not traceable to such general causes (those due, for instance, to particular individuals or parties) are more likely to owe their prominence in the preserved literature to selection, and to have been comparatively insignificant in the bulk of the literature now lost.

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