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Download Inquiring into Animal Enhancement: Model or Countermodel of by Simone Bateman, Sylvie Allouche, Jean Gayon, Michela PDF

By Simone Bateman, Sylvie Allouche, Jean Gayon, Michela Marzano, Jérôme Goffette

This booklet explores concerns raised through previous and current practices of animal enhancement by way of their capability and their objectives, clarifies conceptual concerns and identifies classes that may be realized approximately enhancement practices, as they quandary either animals and people.

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Extra resources for Inquiring into Animal Enhancement: Model or Countermodel of Human Enhancement?

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Is the bovine breed improved for the well-being of cattle and in their interest? Certainly not! It is improved for the advantage of breeders, and it is in their interest to obtain more milk, eggs, wool, leather and meat from their animals. Zootechnics has successfully faced the challenge of improvement. For example, in France between 1961 and 1963, the number of eggs laid per hen rose from 200 to 210 a year to 285 in 1994, and 300 at present. 4 million tons, while milk from cows increased from 150 to 312 million hectolitres.

Selective breeding of animals has since then implicitly worked as a form of enhancement, inasmuch as it has been guided by the idea that the modification of animal properties should be oriented towards making animals better fit different human needs. What animal enhancement advocates add with respect to past interventions is the fact that current and future technologies seem to allow for modification of animals that makes them ‘better than well’. The label ‘enhancement’, indeed, suggests something of an added value.

Moreover, it is also one of the major causes for the explosion in the number of animals used in experiments (Ferrari, 2006). The case of cloning is similar: although the efficiency of this technique varies according to the animal species, cloning an animal remains a difficult task in general and is still at an experimental stage; it is mostly unpredictable in its effects on the phenotype and is profoundly linked to the human use of animals. If we take the example of cloning sport horses, the reason behind the support for cloning as an important reproductive technology lies in the current practice of sterilising these animals to render them more manageable for sport competitions.

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