By James R. Flynn
One of many primary ethical and mental difficulties of our time is whether or not humane beliefs should be defended. lack of religion within the objectivity of ethics has inspired a feeling of hopelessness. The concept that no perfect is best than the other, humane dedication has no rational virtue over Nietzsche’s contempt for usual humans, has been accused of leaving our civilization with no self-confidence or a goal. James R. Flynn rejects makes an attempt to salvage moral objectivity as futile and counterproductive. as an alternative, he makes use of philosophical research to illustrate the relevance of common sense and proof to ethical debate. He then makes use of glossy social technology to refute racists, Social Darwinists, Nietzsche, and the meritocracy thesis of The Bell Curve. Flynn concludes that the good post-Enlightenment project—justice for all races and periods, the aid of inequality, and the abolition of privilege—retains its ethical dignity and relevance.
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One of many important ethical and mental difficulties of our time is whether or not humane beliefs will be defended. lack of religion within the objectivity of ethics has inspired a feeling of hopelessness. The thought that no excellent is best than the other, humane dedication has no rational virtue over Nietzsche’s contempt for traditional humans, has been accused of leaving our civilization with no self-confidence or a goal.
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Extra resources for How to Defend Humane Ideals: Substitutes for Objectivity
It makes no sense to tell a poor person that she should endow a university or someone who cannot swim that he should save a drowning child. Assume no ethical truth-test, assume no unifying method, and assume we are addressing people committed to antihumane ideals. Under what conditions could they act on moral advice to accept humane ideals? " The only plausible hypothesis would be that he was not himself to the point that his mind was unhinged. Does it make sense to give moral advice that only the insane can take?
He begins to sketch an ideal society with the hope that justice will emerge in the process. Behind the detail there lies an overall objective. Plato is attempting to give a direct answer to one of Thrasymachus's main challenges: show me that ethics can organize a society without the aid of politics. Recall that Plato and Thrasymachus accept one thesis in common, that insofar as the struggle for power participates in organizing a human society, it dilutes ethics with the principle of might makes right.
The psychology of our opponents would remain essentially unaltered. It is one thing to overcome revulsion and accept an ideal because reason, either through a truth-test or proof, imposes it on you. That is the essence of following reason, whether it entails a theism you despise as childish, or a scientific theory you find ugly, or a morality you dislike. It is another thing to commit yourself to a loathed ideal simply because it possesses certain limited rational attributes. The fact that humane ideals, subjected to the full glare of science, possess internal coherence, both logical and operational, gives no one a reason to accept them.