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Download Desertification in the third millennium : proceedings of an by A S Alsharhan; Zayed International Prize for the PDF

By A S Alsharhan; Zayed International Prize for the Environment (Organization)

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Extra resources for Desertification in the third millennium : proceedings of an international conference, Dubai, 12-15 February 2000

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Preliminary filter coefficients bk were found using the equation: bk ϭ sin{2␲fc k} sin{␲k /( mϩ1)} sin{␲k /( mϩ1)} и и ␲k ␲k /( mϩ1) ␲k /( mϩ1)) (3) for k ϭ1,2, …, m, with b0 ϭ 2fc for the central coefficient. In this study the double smoothing method was used (Hamming, 1989). As the preliminary filter coefficients do not sum to unity, each coefficient was divided by the filter sum: kϭm B ϭ Σbk k ϭ Ϫm (4) Final coefficients Ck were computed as Ck ϭ bk/B. 7573684. A band-pass filter passes only frequencies in a narrow band from fpass (fp) to fstop (fs) (Burt and Barber, 1996).

Basically, the results confirm that although average layer thickness in the two stalagmites is very different, temporal relationships remain reasonably constant, suggesting that the growth rate of both is responding to the same suite of external environmental forces. The relationships with rainfall confirm that in this semiarid region water determines how fast stalagmites grow, while the relationship between rainfall and the SO substantiates the argument presented earlier that the state of the SO has a major effect on the climate of Botswana.

Each of these 58 points was given the predicted value of the auto regressive (AR) model (order p ϭ 21) because they embody the characteristics of the original series. 6 and m ϭ 29. Each wavetrain is associated with particular frequencies and represents the contribution that these frequencies make to the total variance of the original time series. For each wavetrain the squared correlation coefficient between the wavetrain and the original time series was calculated to assess the portion of the total variance in the series explained by the wavetrain.

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