By Imre Lakatos, Alan Musgrave
Imre Lakatos, Alan Musgrave. Criticism and the expansion of Knowledge: complaints of the foreign Colloquium within the Philosophy of technological know-how. Cambridge college Press, 3d impact 1974 [Repr. 1995]. 288 Pages
ISBN 0-521-09623-5 paperback
Two books were really influential in modern philosophy of technology: Karl R. Popper's good judgment of clinical Discovery, and Thomas S. Kuhn's constitution of clinical Revolutions. either agree upon the significance of revolutions in technological know-how, yet fluctuate concerning the function of feedback in science's progressive development. This quantity arose out of a symposium on Kuhn's paintings, with Popper within the chair, at a global colloquium held in London in 1965. The publication starts with Kuhn's assertion of his place by way of seven essays providing feedback and research, and at last through Kuhn's answer. The publication will curiosity senior undergraduates and graduate scholars of the philosophy and historical past of technological know-how, in addition to specialist philosophers, philosophically susceptible scientists, and a few psychologists and sociologists.
'An fascinating and worthy selection of papers.' - Nature
'This ebook is an interesting instance of philosophical debate approximately concerns which should still curiosity any historian of technological know-how desirous about clinical approach and the philosophy of clinical change.' - Philosophy of Science
"An vital selection of major papers." - American Scientist
Previous Editions: First released 1970. Reprinted with corrections 1972, 1974 (3d Impression). Reprinted 1976, 1977, 1978, 1979, 1980, 1981, 1982, 1984, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988, 1989,1990,1992, 1993, 1994, 1995.
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Additional resources for Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge, Volume 4: Proceedings of the International Colloquium in the Philosophy of Science
According to that argument, the differences between the kinds of change taking place during 'normal* and 'revolutionary* phases of scientific development are, at the intellectual level, absolute. As a result, the account he gave went too far by implying the existence of discontinuities in scientific theory far more profound and far less explicable than any which ever in fact occur. In his new paper, he appears to be withdrawing somewhat from that original, exposed position, to a less extreme one; yet the effect of doing so (I shall argue) is to demolish entirely his original distinction between 'normal* and Revolutionary* phases.
We will then be faced with a picture of science in which the theories currently accepted at each stage serve as starting-points for a large number of suggested variants; but in which only a small fraction of these variants in fact survive and become established within the body of ideas passed on to the next generation. ' thus has to be reformulated, and gives rise to two distinct groups of questions. '—the counterpart, in biological evolution, to the genetical question about the origin of mutant forms.
The full exposition will be given in a forthcoming book on conceptual evolution and the problem of 'human understanding'. plSTlNCTION BETWEEN NORMAL AND REVOLUTIONARY SCIENCE 47 internal or to external factors, and it will become naive to suppose that there need be any conflict between the two kinds of account. As a hint : the volume of innovation going on in any science presumably depends to a great extent on the opportunities provided in that social context for doing original work on the science in question—hence, the rate of innovation will be substantially responsive to factors external to science.