By Kentaro Ito
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Extra info for Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide-Based Thin Film Solar Cells
9% efficiency CZTSe solar cell with a TiN layer (sample C1, TiN) under dark and 1 sun illumination. Normalized EQE is shown in the inset. 5G solar spectrum. The band gap range of kesterites is marked. (b) Efficiency as a function of absorber band gap for various CZTSSe solar cell devices reported in the literature. The vertical lines depict the transition from pure Se to SSe and from SSe to S devices. 9. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, − Avancis GmbH, + IMEC, × CEA, * University of Luxembourg.
11 Raman spectrum of CZTS polycrystals. The fitting result for the A1 peak is shown on the inset graph, where the original spectrum is represented by symbols. 12 (a) Low-temperature (T=10 K) PL spectrum of near-stoichiometric CZTS; and (b) the corresponding radiative recombination model. 13 Micro-PL spectra of CZTS. 14 (a) Arrhenius plot showing the calculated activation energies of the defect levels in CZTS. The measurements are performed at bias 0 V. (b) Temperature dependence of the relative efficiency η of a CZTSSe MGL solar cell under different light intensities.
The scan direction is indicated by the arrow in (a). 11 (a) I–V characteristics under dark and1 sun illumination. Light I–V was measured by an external accredited laboratory (Newport Technology and Applications Center’s Photovoltaic Lab) and it is very similar to our own measurement (not shown here). (b) EQEs measured at zero and at a reverse bias (–1 V). 12 TRPL spectrum at the emission wavelength of 960 nm. Carrier lifetime of c. 8 ns was determined by a single exponent fit to the spectrum (15–25 ns).