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Download Conflict Between India and Pakistan: An Encyclopedia (Roots by Peter Lyon PDF

By Peter Lyon

This up to date encyclopedia examines the clash among India and Pakistan from Independence to the current day, with an authoritative remedy that offers the problems evenhandedly and from either international locations' perspectives.

• special entries take care of cities, towns, and geographic components, together with Jammu, Srinigar, and the Siachen Glacier; significant figures concerned with the clash, together with common Pervez Musharraf; the non secular divide among Hindus and Muslims; and the dispute over Kashmir

• a radical chronology presents year-by-year therapy of the most concerns in Indo-Pakistan relations

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He was well educated and had scholarly knowledge of Arabic and Persian, of the Koran, and of the Hadith, or traditional sayings of the Prophet. His mother tongue was Urdu, but he also conversed in Hindu and Chagatai Turki. His appointment in 1636 as viceroy of the Deccan provinces first brought him into prominence, but tense relations with his father and the rivalry of his elder brother, Dara, led to his resignation in 1644. In 1645, however, he was appointed governor of Gujerat. In 1647 he was sent to be governor and commander-in-chief in Balk and Badakshan, as Shah Jahan was attempting the reconquest of the Mogul’s ancestral lands in central Asia.

Officers are trained at the Indian Military Academy, Dehra Dun (Uttaranchal). An Aviation Corps of 14 squadrons operates helicopters that are locally built under license. Army reserves number 300,000, with a further 500,000 personnel available as a second-line reserve force. There is a volunteer Territorial Army of 40,000. There are also numerous paramilitary groups, including the Ministry of Defence Rashtriya Rifles (numbering 40,000), the Indo-Tibetan Border Police (32,400), the State Armed Police (400,0000), the Civil Defence (453,000), the Central Industrial Security Force (95,000), and the Ministry of Home Affairs Assam Rifles (52,500) Navy The Navy has three commands: Eastern (at Visakhapatnam), Western (at Bombay), and Southern (at Kochi), the last a training and support command.

ASHOKA, EMPEROR (CA. 268–231 BCE) Ashoka, or Asoka, was the last major Mauryan emperor. He was a convert to Buddhism and organized it as a recognized principal religion, while granting freedom to other religious sects. He convened the third great council of Buddhists at Patna and proclaimed his faith as far as his influence extended. He gave up armed conquest in favor of disseminating dharma (broadly moral principles) and inscribed his moral precepts and pronouncements widely on rocks and pillars.

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