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This complete operations guide for water provider explains using concrete strain pipe. The handbook offers all of the supplemental details engineers and architects have to optimize box functionality of concrete strain pipelines. insurance contains hydraulics, surge strain, exterior so much, bedding, and backfilling; designing bolstered concrete strain pipe, fittings and appurtenances, thrust restraints, pipe on piers, trench and tunnel install, and subaqueous installations; layout concerns for corrosive environments; and transportation of pipe, hydrostatic checking out, tapping, and disinfection. furthermore, this version bargains advisor necessities for the acquisition and install of concrete strain pipe to aid the engineer and buyer to guarantee specific product functionality.

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New York: Dover Publications. R. 1951. Hydraulic Transients (Engineering Societies Monographs). New York McGraw-Hill Book Company. L. Streeter. 1983. Fluid Transients. : Feb Press. Copyright (C) 2008 American Water Works Association All Rights Reserved AWWA MANUAL Chapter EI 5 External Loads This chapter provides information and methods to determine dead loads imposed on a conduit that is constructed in a trench or an embankment, as well as jacked or tunneled installations. Information and methods are also presented to determine live loads resulting from highway truck traffic and railways.

When selecting pipe diameters based on the preceding formulas, it is important that the designer consider both average annual pumping conditions and peak pumping conditions. The annual power cost equation, if used in conjunction with the peak pumping rate, will lead the designer to select a diameter that is larger than needed. In addition, the designer must consider that power factors or demand charges affect the rates paid for power and that power costs will increase with time. Therefore, it may be prudent to select an escalation rate so that a realistic comparison between the first cost of the pipe and the long-term pumping costs may be equitably made.

Both terms are defined in the paragraphs that follow. The Reynolds number is a function of the flow in the pipe and may be calculated as Re dv 1 V Where: Re = Reynolds number d V v = inside diameter of the pipe, ft = velocity, ft/sec = kinematic viscosity of the fluid, ft2/sec The kinematic viscosity of water at various temperatures from freezing to boiling is presented in Table 3-3. The relative roughness (e Id) of a pipe is a function of the absolute roughness (e) of the interior surface of the pipe and the pipe diameter fd).

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