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Download Companion Encyclopedia of Anthropology by Tim Ingold PDF

By Tim Ingold

Книга предлагает всесторонний обзор современных идей в биологической, социальной и культурной антропологии, закладывающих основу для будущего развития и интеграции. Основная идея «Энциклопедического справочника» - в необходимости преодоления разделения и фрагментации узких специализаций гуманитарных наук и естествознания в подходах к антропологии. В книге подчеркивается взаимосвязи между разделами науки о человечестве, и определяются перспективы её развития.
Книга состоит из трех частей – «Человечество», «Культура» и «Социальная жизнь», включающие в себя около forty больших статей. В первой части рассматриваются вопросы человеческой эволюции и разнообразии человеческих популяций, особенности отличий разных популяций, процессы приспособления популяций к изменяющейся окружающей среде, и, в свою очередь, преобразование окружающие среды. Во второй части говорится о происхождении и структуре человеческой культуры, и о роли культуры в восприятии, познании и различной деятельности. В третьей части исследуются различные аспекты отношений и процессов, протекающих между индивидуумами и коллективами в ходе социальной жизни.Образцы сканов: Содержание:

Preface ix
General introduction
Tim Ingold xiii
The members xxiii
1. creation to humanity
Tim Ingold 3
2. Humanity and animality
Tim Ingold 14
3. The evolution of early hominids
Phillip V.Tobias 33
4. Human evolution: the final a million years
Clive Gamble 79
5. The origins and evolution of language
Philip Lieberman 108
6. instruments and power behaviour
Thomas Wynn 133
7. area of interest building, evolution and culture
F.J.Odling-Smee 162
8. Modes of subsistence: searching and amassing to agriculture and pastoralism
Roy Ellen 197
9. The nutrition and food of human populations
Igor de Garine 226
10. Demographic growth: motives and consequences
Mark N.Cohen 265
11. illness and the destruction of indigenous populations
Stephen J.Kunitz 297
PART II: tradition 327
12. advent to culture
Tim Ingold 329
13. Why animals have neither tradition nor history
David Premack and Ann James Premack 350
14. Symbolism: the root of culture
Mary LeCron Foster 366
15. Artefacts and the which means of things
Daniel Miller 396
16. Technology
François Sigaut 420
17. Spatial association and the equipped environment
Amos Rapoport 460
18. Perceptions of time
Barbara Adam 503
19. features of literacy
Brian V.Street and Niko Besnier 527
20. Magic, faith and the rationality of belief
Gilbert Lewis 563
21. fantasy and metaphor
James F.Weiner 591
22. Ritual and performance
Richard Schechner 613
23. The anthropology of art
Howard Morphy 648
24. song and dance
Anthony Seeger 686
25. The politics of tradition: ethnicity and nationalism
Anthony D.Smith 706
PART III: SOCIAL lifestyles 735
26. advent to social life

Tim Ingold 737
27. Sociality between people and non-human animals
R.I.M.Dunbar 756
28. principles and prohibitions: the shape and content material of human kinship
Alan Barnard 783
29. knowing intercourse and gender
Henrietta L.Moore 813
30. Socialization, enculturation and the improvement of non-public identity
Fitz John Porter Poole 831
31. Social facets of language use
Jean DeBernardi 861
32. paintings, the department of labour and co-operation
Sutti Ortiz 891
33. trade and reciprocity
C.A.Gregory 911
34. Political domination and social evolution
Timothy Earle 940
35. legislations and dispute processes
Simon Roberts 962
36. Collective violence and customary security
Robert A.Rubinstein 983
37. Inequality and equality
André Béteille 1010
38. The state country, colonial enlargement and the modern international order
Peter Worsley 1040
Index 1067

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A QUESTION OF TAILS In the year 1647, a Swedish naval lieutenant by the name of Nicolas Köping was serving aboard a Dutch East-Indiaman in the Bay of Bengal. One day the ship approached an island whose naked inhabitants, according to Köping’s account, had tails like those of cats, and a similarly feline comportment. Coming alongside in their canoes, these natives—evidently bent on trade— threatened to swarm the ship and had to be frightened off with a round of cannon-shot. The ship’s pilot subsequently took ashore a landing party of five of the Dutch crew, to scour the island for provisions.

But human beings are not mere survival machines, chemical converters geared to the reproduction of their genes. They are persons, with specific social and cultural identities. What they eat, up to a point, makes them who they are, and their involvement in social support networks allows them to cope with disease and other afflictions, when they strike, in a way that they otherwise could not. In the study of such coping mechanisms, and how they work, biological 12 INTRODUCTION TO HUMANITY anthropology stands to make a vital contribution not only to theory, but also to the practical well-being of future generations.

But it sorely troubled our predecessors during the early days of colonial exploration, and if we bother to ask it we may find it no easier than they did to come up with an answer that will withstand rigorous critical scrutiny. In the second part of the article I introduce a contrasting sense of humanity, as a condition opposed to the animal. This is the condition of being human, revealed in a seemingly inexhaustible richness and diversity of cultural forms fully equal to the diversity of organic forms in nature.

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