By Terence Cosgrove
Colloidal structures are vital throughout a number of industries, comparable to the foodstuff, pharmaceutical, agrochemical, cosmetics, polymer, paint and oil industries, and shape the foundation of quite a lot of items (eg cosmetics & toiletries, processed foodstuffs and photographic film). a close knowing in their formation, keep watch over and alertness is needed in these industries, but many new graduate or postgraduate chemists or chemical engineers have very little direct event of colloids.
Based on lectures given on the hugely profitable Bristol Colloid Centre Spring institution, Colloid technological know-how: ideas, tools and Applications presents an intensive creation to colloid technological know-how for commercial chemists, technologists and engineers. Lectures are collated and awarded in a coherent and logical textual content on useful colloid science.
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Extra info for Colloid science : principles, methods and applications
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. C. (1937) Physica, 4, 1058. W. W. (1966) Trans. , 62, 1638. V. and Landau, L. (1941) Acta Physicochim. (URSS), 14, 633. J. G. (1948) Theory of the Stability of Lyophobic Colloids. Elsevier, Amsterdam. Schulze, J. (1882) pr. , 25, 471. Schulze, J. (1883) pr. , 27, 320. B. (1900) Proc. R. , 66a, 110. Fuchs, N. (1934) Z. , 89, 736. tex May 28, 2005 8:15 Chapter 4 Surfactant Aggregation and Adsorption at Interfaces Julian Eastoe A major group of colloidal systems, also classified as lyophilic, is that of the so-called association colloids .
15) where η is the viscosity. We may write the half-life for the second order reaction in terms of the reciprocal of the particle number. 9 shows how the half-life decreases with size and concentration. 2 Interaction limited coagulation When there is an energy barrier to prevent the particles coming together the rate is slowed, as only a fraction of the particles collide with sufficient energy to exceed the height of the barrier and stick. This is known as reaction limited aggregation with a rate constant k R in contrast to the diffusion limited rate constant k D .
We must understand how this works both in quiescent systems and when external fields, such as gravitational or shear fields, are present. So what do we mean by stability? This very much depends on the circumstances which are being considered. We can define stability in colloidal systems either in terms of their tendency to aggregate or in terms of their tendency to sediment under the action of gravity. In this chapter we will focus on the stability to aggregation and look at the factors which control this stability.