By D. M. Goldenberg (auth.), Richard P. Baum, Peter H. Cox, Gustav Hör, Gian Luigi Buraggi (eds.)
It used to be at Frankfurt/Mainin 1899 that Paul Ehrlich first expounded his recognized "site-chain concept" -which defined the fundamental immunological critical of antibody-antigen interactio- at the celebration of the hole of the Institute for Experimental Therapeutics (which used to be later named after him). approximately a hundred years have handed on the grounds that, and on reflection it may be acknowledged that the "Ehrlich period" (first steps in immunology "Magic Bullet" proposal) and the "Behring period" (detection of antibodies and serum treatment) shaped the basic foundation within the improvement of immunology. Niels okay. Jerne, the previous director of the Paul Ehrlich Institute in Frankfurt/Main obtained, including Georges Kohler and Cesar Milstein, the Nobel Prize in medication 1984. those past due successors of Ehrlich and Behring first defined the hybridoma expertise (in 1975) which enabled some of the most very important and progressive technological recommendations within the box of immunology -the construction of monoclonal antibodies. It occurs that, the time of the e-book of this ebook, only a decade has handed because the first use of radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies in guy (by the Lausanne Group). Over those 10 years a major growth has taken position within the box of immunoscintigraphy:A huge panel of hugely particular monoclonal antibodies opposed to tumour-associated antigens in addition to general mobilephone compounds were constructed. huge, immense development has been made within the box of radiolabelling -from iodine-131 to technetium-99mor even positron-emittingradionuclides, e. g. iodine-124.
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Additional resources for Clinical Use of Antibodies: Tumours, infection, infarction, rejection and in the diagnosis of AIDS
Nevertheless, a larger industrial production is to be hoped for. Another problem is represented by the generation of human antimurine antibodies (HAMA) by the patient, after injection of an immunoreagentof murine origin. No correlation has been demonstrated between high serum levels of HAMA and adverse reactions. Nevertheless, circulating HAMA may react with radiolabelled antibodies and reduce the possibility to obtain suitable tumour imaging. Table 7 shows the result obtained by Seccamani et aLin patients injected once or several times with monoclonal antibodies of murine origin for radioimmunoscintigraphy or radioimmunotherapy(31).
Another limitation of immunoscintigraphyis the production of human anti-mouse antibodies which prevent repetition of an immunoscintigraphicexamination in the same patient. Difficulties of Image Interpretation Tumour contrast is often moderate, and count figures are not optimal with the radionuclide activities used (except for technetium-99m). To obtain reproducible results for several observers, images should be acquired in the best technical conditions and, if possible, in BCT mode. One problem in interpreting images is the lack of standardisation.
Labelled antibodies are particularly complicated because we are concerned with three different sets of criteria namely: As a radioactive substance, as a Pharmaceutical and as a Blood Product (Vaccines and Sera). 31 R. P. Baum et al. ), Clinical Use of Antibodies, 31-35. © 1991 Kluwer Academic Publishers. 32 Product Definition The characteristics of a Radiopharmaceuticalare determined by the use of a standardised preparation method using raw materials of clearly specified quality. The physical chemical characteristics of the final product are determined by the quality control procedures and specifications which are laid down.