By L Denis (auth.), L. Denis, P. H. Smith, M. Pavone-Macaluso (eds.)
This quantity is a document of the complaints of a world Symposium on Bladder melanoma and a range of Urological papers offered on the Antwerp clinical Days in Antwerp, Belgium, at the nineteenth and twentieth September 1980. The assembly was once backed via the Antwerp scientific Days application Committee supported by way of the Royal Antwerp Circle of drugs, the Urological staff of the eu association for learn at the therapy of melanoma, the Belgische Vereniging voor Urologie, the Societe Belge d'Urologie, the Province and town of Antwerp and the nationwide Fund for clinical scientific examine of Belgium. individuals have been briefed to prevent an excessive amount of overlapping, within the wish of acquiring a coherent compilation of medical facts. we're thankful for his or her self-discipline which permits early ebook. all of the contributions during this quantity, other than ~he part on immunology which used to be chosen through the editors for its similar inter est, have been offered on the overseas Symposium less than the sections 'Understanding the Disease', 'Therapeutic Approaches', 'Chemotherapy', and 'Prospective Studies'.
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Additional resources for Clinical Bladder Cancer
In my view, papilloma should be excluded altogether. To return to the question of biopsy, it can probably be omitted only in the unequivocal T4 lesion, if positive cytology is available; I do not think it can be omitted in the Tis and in the Ta tumours. It is also impossible to distinguish between a papilloma and a Ta transitional cell carcinoma on the one hand, and between a Ta and a T1 tumour on the other, without a TUR-biopsy. Diathermy does not allow a proper T classification. Furthermore, although a diagnosis of ca in situ is warranted on merely cytological grounds, the location and the multiplicity of the lesions can only be given by multiple biopsies.
The most important progress recently is in the immunological approach. A, B, H, cell surface antigens are normally present on bladder mucosa and on some superficial tumors. The loss of this normal antigenic activity is correlated with the subsequent development of the invasive bladder cancer. The antigenicity is assessed by the specific red cell adherence test. More recently, the test has become more simple and much more reliable by using immunofluorescence to detect these antigens as demonstrated by three French authors (5) (Fig .
In such cases, cancer staging is done by neglecting the thickness of the mucosal and submucosal layer, and assuming that the muscle layer and the bladder wall are the same in thickness. The tumor base is clearly visualised on the tomogram, since cancer tissue is less echogenic than the muscle layer of the bladder wall. Whether the tumor base is superficial or deep in the muscle layer is directly determined on the tomogram. For instance, ureteral penetration of the bladder wall is visualised clearly and the depth of the ureter is determined on the tomogram.