By Christopher Fletcher
Richard II (1377-99) has lengthy suffered from an surprisingly unmanly attractiveness. Over the centuries, he has been habitually linked to lavish courtly expenditure, absolutist principles, Francophile traits, and a love of peace, all of that have been associated with the king's actual effeminacy. Even sympathetic debts have primarily retained this photo, in simple terms pushing aside specific aspects of it, or representing Richard's acceptance as facts of praiseworthy dissent from permitted norms of masculinity.Christopher Fletcher takes a noticeably diverse technique, environment the politics of Richard II's reign firmly within the context of overdue medieval assumptions in regards to the nature of manhood and formative years. This makes it attainable not just to appreciate the time table of the king's critics, but additionally to signify a brand new account of his activities. faraway from being the effeminate tyrant of ancient mind's eye, Richard was once a standard younger nobleman, attempting to determine his manhood-and for that reason his authority to rule-by completely traditional capability; first via an army crusade, after which, fatally, via violent revenge opposed to those that tried to restrain him.The failure of Richard's matters to help this aspiration produced a chain of conflicts with the king, during which his rivals stumbled on it handy to ascribe to him the traditional faults of teenage. those reviews derived their strength no longer from the king's genuine character, yet from the healthy among sure modern assumptions approximately early life, effeminacy, and masculinity at the one hand, and the activities of Richard's government-constrained by means of tough and intricate circumstances-on the opposite.
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