By Basant Agrawal
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Additional resources for Building Integrated Photovoltaic Thermal Systems : For Sustainable Developments
20). 29) has been modiﬁed to use extraterrestrial radiation on a horizontal surface as follows: H n ¼ a þ b H0 N ð1:30Þ where H¯ 0 is the monthly average of the daily extraterrestrial radiation at the location and a and b are modiﬁed constants. 1 Monthly Average of the Daily Total Radiation on a Horizontal Surface For many applications, one requires knowledge of the monthly average of the daily solar radiation available on a horizontal surface. 30) as: H n ¼ a þ b H0 N ð1:31Þ The regression parameters a and b can be determined using the following expressions: n a ¼ À0:309 þ 0:539 cos f À 0:0693E0 þ 0:29 N ð1:32Þ n b ¼ 1:527 À 1:027 cos f þ 0:0926E0 À 0:359 N ð1:33Þ where E0 is the elevation of the location above sea level in kilometres and the percent possible sunshine.
The heat transfer coeﬃcient h is a complicated function of the ﬂuid ﬂow, thermophysical properties of the ﬂuid and geometric arrangements of the system. However, the appropriate mathematical form of h in a limited domain of applicability is evaluated from empirical equations obtained by correlating experimental results with the method of dimensional analysis. 1 Dimensionless Heat Convective Parameters The equations for convective heat transfer contain the following dimensionless terms with dissimilar physical parameters: 1.
15 15 A pyranometer with an occulting disc. calibrated so as to measure the solar radiation on a horizontal surface. Therefore, when tilted, the change in free convection regime within the glass dome may introduce an error in measurement. 3 The Sunshine Recorder A sunshine recorder is an instrument used to measure the duration (in hours) of bright sunshine during the course of the day. In 1853, John Francis Campbell developed a burning sunshine recorder. Later, in 1879, Sir George Gabriel Stokes modiﬁed it by replacing water-ﬁlled glass spheres with solid glass spheres.