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Extra info for Bt resistance : characterization and strategies for GM crops producing bacillus thuringiensis toxins

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However, the evolution of pest resistance and consequent resumption of the use of chemicals may cancel these benefits. The evolution of resistance is a reality and can happen in any biological system. , 2009). The best alternative is to continue applying strategies to manage the evolution of resistance and to enhance research focused on developing new methods to control insect pests and reduce their negative impacts on production. , 2013). It is important that all participants, including the companies providing technologies, extension services, farmers, the scientific community and the governments of producing countries unite in their efforts to establish guidelines that will enable a greater durability of Bt technology.

Additionally, there is the implementation of the ‘green bridge’ that is formed by the additional cultivation of sorghum, millet and beans (Embrapa, 2013). Some of the GM seeds used in this region are not certified, so it is unclear what 31 amount of toxin is being produced by the Bt plants that are being used. , 2011) are being implemented either at less than the recommended level or are not being implemented at all (Grigolli and Lourenção, 2013). Since 2013, maize farmers in Cabeceiras de Goiás, in the Brazilian cerrado, have reported that over the 4 years that Bt maize expressing Cry1F toxin has being grown, the effectiveness of the control of S.

Frugiperda to Cry1F toxin was found and it was shown that resistance is autosomal, highly recessive and without maternal effects. , 2010). Relevant factors to be considered in understanding the reasons for the development of resistance in this region are that Puerto Rico is an island, S. frugiperda is less susceptible to Cry1F than other maize pests and the climatic conditions on the island (which went through a dry spell). Together, these factors probably induced the migration of S. frugiperda to irrigated areas where Cry1F maize was being cultivated.

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