By A. Thomas Stavros, Cynthia L. Rapp, Steve H. Parker
This quantity is an entire and definitive consultant to acting and studying breast ultrasound examinations. The booklet explains each element of the exam in detail—from gear choice and studying strategies, to correlations among sonographic and mammographic findings, to specific characterization of sonographic abnormalities. Complementing the textual content are greater than 1,500 illustrations, together with ultrasound scans, corresponding mammographic photographs, and diagrams of key facets of the examination.
Dr. Stavros completely explains the physics of breast ultrasound and the certain probes and different gear had to produce high-resolution photos of breast tissue. Chapters on breast ultrasound anatomy display the anatomic aspect that may be visible on present gear and correlate sonographic and mammographic anatomic positive factors. next chapters describe exam tactics for comparing particular abnormalities and aspect the distinguishing positive aspects of alternative cystic and sturdy breast lesions. additionally incorporated is a bankruptcy on Doppler characterization of breast lesions.
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Because each image is obtained at multiple angles of incidence, the fibrous pseudocapsule around benign lesions is shown better and more completely, especially on the lateral edges, where critical angle phenomena normally prevent its demonstration with conventional imaging (Figs. 2–30 and 2–31). Other obliquely oriented thin structures, such as FIGURE 2–26 This figure illustrates the differences between a conventional beam (left) and a real-time spatially compounded beam (right). The conventional image is constructed with a single sweep of the beam from one end of the image to the other.
The first is reduced penetration. Coded harmonics will penetrate adequately in 94% of all patients, but in 6% of cases, usually women with large breasts composed primarily of fibrous tissue, fundamental imaging will still be required to obtain adequate penetration (Fig. 2–25). The second limitation is a reduction in frame rate that is acceptable as long as color or power Doppler is not used simultaneously. When Doppler is required, the image that is interlaced with Doppler must be constructed at fundamental rather than harmonic frequencies.
This obliquely oriented, extended field of view of the upper outer quadrant of the right breast shows two widely separated malignant solid nodules. THE CHANGING CONCEPT OF NOMINAL TRANSDUCER FREQUENCIES The frequency label placed on a transducer by a manufacturer has been termed its nominal frequency. Traditionally, the center frequency of an ultrasound transducer had been used as its nominal frequency. 5 MHz center frequencies. 5 MHz. The other might have a narrower bandwidth from 6 to 9 MHz. 5-MHz transducers.