By Rolf D. Schmid, Claudia Schmidt-Dannert, Ruth Hammelehle
Now offered in huge layout, the hot Schmid is the proper primer in biotechnology. The two-page format with one web page being an entire colour determine and the other web page being explanatory textual content is the correct mix among swift visual-based studying with intensive details
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Extra info for Biotechnology : An Illustrated Primer
To this end, they are subjected to further selection with respect to growth, productivity, and other features using shake flasks and then small bioreactors under conditions resembling the production process. The best candidates may then be backcrossed with wild-type or less mutated strains to reduce the negative effects arising from many passages of random mutation. Selection in submersed culture. Continuous fermentation has also been used for selecting microorganisms. , by gradually replacing a good carbon source (→88) with a poor one.
At the ribosomes, the protein chains are assembled according to the sequence information encoded in the mRNA. In some cases, the mRNA also encodes leader sequences, which direct a protein into a special compartment of the cell. , glycosylation or phosphorylation). 1 million protein variants, which differ among the types and age of cells. Such variations are analyzed by proteomics techniques (→314). The genetic code used by living organisms to translate DNA sequences into protein structures is nearly universal.
Energy is generated via the electron transport chain. 20 min. 2 Mbp and has been completely sequenced; its G + C-content is 44 %. In biotechnology, B. , proteases, cellulases and amylases (→174, 176, 190, 194). It is also used for the production of some antibiotics such as bacitracin. Production strains of 20 % reduced genome size have been engineered which produce up to two-fold more cellulase or protease. Corynebacterium glutamicum is a member of the coryneform bacteria which grow in many habitats and include some pathogenic species such as C.