By World Energy Council
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Extra info for Biofuels: Policies, Standards and Technologies
Does not store well. High input annual grass. Only kernels can be processed using available technology. Development of commercial cellulosic technology would allow stover to be used and increase bioethanol yield by 1,100 - 2,000 l/ha Table 4: Selected Bioethanol Feedstocks and Their Annual Yields Compared with conventional feedstocks, production of bioethanol from new feedstocks requires different technological (pre) treatment: Bringing down the learning curves and decreasing production costs is a common goal for the research in new technologies in both biodiesel and bioethanol industries.
02% of the domestic demand for regular diesel. Similar to bioethanol, the Mexican Ministry of Energy recommended the gradual introduction of biodiesel in the country. Nigeria The biomass energy resource base of Nigeria is estimated to be about 144 million tonnes per year. This includes wood, forage and shrubs, animal wastes and wastes arising from forestry, agricultural, municipal and industrial activities as well as aquatic biomass. 9 million hectares can be considered to be arable. This shows a huge potential for the production of biomass since an estimated 94% of Nigerian households are engaged in crop farming.
They are designed exclusively for fuels production and are commonly referred to as “energy crops”. The most common catalysts used are strong mineral base such as sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and potassium hydroxide (KOH). After the reaction, the base catalyst must be neutralized with a strong mineral acid. Biofuels for Transportation In the past few years there have been important advances in the field of alternative transportation fuels, primarily bioethanol and biodiesel. Only biodiesel and bioethanol are considered in this report due to their similar inherent properties compared to fossil-based fuels, especially autoignitibility.