By Anju Dahiya
Depleting fossil gasoline reserves and opposed results of fluctuating oil costs have renewed curiosity in substitute and sustainable assets of strength. Bioenergy: Biomass to Biofuels takes in this subject and examines present and rising feedstocks and complicated approaches and applied sciences permitting the improvement of all attainable replacement power assets: good (wood strength, grass strength, and different biomass), liquid (biodiesel, algae biofuel, ethanol), and gaseous/electric (biogas, syngas, bioelectricity). Divided into seven components, Bioenergy gives thorough attention to subject matters reminiscent of feedstocks, biomass construction and usage, existence cycle research, power go back on Invested (EROI), built-in sustainability tests, conversions applied sciences, biofuels economics and coverage. furthermore, contributions from best pros and teachers, augmented through comparable service-learning case stories and quizzes, supply readers with a complete source that attach idea to real-world implementation.
- Provides a accomplished evaluate and in-depth technical info of all attainable bioenergy assets (solid, liquid, and gaseous), together with state-of-the-art issues equivalent to complicated fuels and biogas
- Integrates present kingdom of paintings assurance from feedstocks to within your means conversion tactics to biofuels financial research and environmental coverage
- Features case reports and quizzes for every part derived from the implementation of exact hands-on biofuel initiatives as a part of provider studying.
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Extra resources for Bioenergy: Biomass to Biofuels
4). Crop residues include materials left in fields after crops have been harvested. For example, the stems, leaves, and stalks of corn leftover after harvest of grain, referred to as stover, can be used in the production of cellulosic ethanol. Their use potentially limits the impacts of biofuels on food security (Kim and Dale, 2004). 8 billion Mg/year (Lal, 2005); however, the availability of residues differs by location (region, country, and within countries) according to climate and soil variations, affecting the growth suitability of particular crops.
A biorefinery typically integrates conversion processes so that whole-plant feedstocks may be used to produce energy, chemicals, and other value-added products. , 2009). Conservation lands, whether privately or publically owned, typically require management for maintaining cover types and various conservation goals. 6). Biomass resulting from habitat management actions has the potential to be used in a variety of biomass conversion technologies. Land managers, therefore, may be able to offset management costs with sale of biomass resulting from periodic management actions.
FARMER KNOWLEDGE AND RISK Bioenergy feedstock production involves risk. , interannual variation in yield), and rapidly fluctuating prices. 28 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO BIOENERGY Farm profitability is directly related to how well these risks can be minimized or absorbed. The USDA’s Risk Management Agency has identified five primary sources of risks in agriculture: production, marketing, financial, legal, and human resources (ERS, 2013). Agricultural production of biomass crops presents acute challenges in each of these categories.