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By John Edward Eckert; Frank Robert Shaw; Everett Franklin Phillips

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Extra resources for Beekeeping

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That starting at 840 min). Dado and Allen (1994) have monitored feeding, ruminating and drinking behaviour in lactating cows offered a total mixed ration and have concluded that a Latin Square design with 12 cows monitored for 5 days would be sufficient to detect a 10% difference between means for feeding-related behaviour variables with a probability of 80%. Sheep From 2 or 3 weeks of age, lambs spend increasing amounts of time nibbling at food. After weaning they eat by prehending food with their lips and tongue, pulling it back into the mouth for extensive chewing.

More time was spent in abnormal activities (such as biting empty food bins, wood or wool, ‘star-gazing’) by those on the restricted level of food but, when hay was offered in addition, there was much less abnormal behaviour. Blackface lambs chewed wool more when on low-protein than when on high-protein food, while there was no difference in Suffolk crosses. The former spent less time eating than the latter when on ad libitum feeding and more time in abnormal food searching. These ad libitum fed animals grew at a very high rate, thus showing that high performance is not necessarily an indication of good welfare.

E. the hunger ratio was thought to be more useful than the satiety ratio. Note, however, that statistically significant ratios between meal weight and prior or subsequent intervals might be a consequence of using inappropriate inter-meal intervals. If arbitrarily defined inter-meal criteria are used that are shorter than the ‘true’ biologically defined interval (as in the two examples cited immediately above), there will be many small meals separated by short intervals, which will give closer correlations between meal size and pre- or postprandial interval than if the more biologically meaningful interval is used.

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