By Joanne S. Ingwall Ph.D. (auth.)
ATP performs a significant function within the major reasons of cardiac morbidity and mortality within the western international: ischemia and center failure. we're in our infancy employing what's identified approximately biology and chemistry of ATP towards constructing potent cures for those ailments. during this quantity, the present knowing of the chemistry and biology of ATP in particular within the cardiomyocyte is gifted. New insights into ATP were gleaned utilizing biophysical strategies permitting dynamic dimension of chemical occasions within the intact beating middle and utilizing new animal versions during which cardiac proteins are both over expressed, deleted or harbor particular mutations.
This ebook presents a precis of the fundamental knowing and comprises illustrations of why ATP and the Heart is critical to either the clinician and scientist.
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Extra resources for ATP and the Heart
J Clin Invest. 1990;86: 1823-1828. 28. Zhang J, Wilke N, Wang Y, Zhang Y, Wang C, Eijgelshoven MH, Cho YK, Murakami Y, Ugurbil K, Bache RJ, From AH. Functional and bioenergetic consequences of postinfarction left ventricular remodeling in a new porcine model. MRI and 31 P-MRS study. Circulation. 1996;94: 1089-1100. 29. Pohmann R, von Kienlin M. Accurate phosphorus metabolite images of the human heart by 3D acquisition-weighted CSI. Magn Reson Med. 2001 ;45:817-826. 30. Bittl JA, DeLayre J, Ingwall JS.
The creatine kinase reaction: PCr + ADP + H+ ~ creatine + ATP Keq = [ATP] [creatine] [ADP] [PCr] [H+] Rearranging, [ADP] = [ATP] [creatine] [Keq] [PCr] [H+] Values for cytosolic concentrations of AMP can be calculated from the equilibrium expression for adenylate kinase in an analogous way. Input values of [ATP] are obtained experimentally and [ADP] is obtained from the creatine kinase equilibrium expression. 48 Ways to Measure ATP and Related Metabolites The adenylate kinase reaction: 2ADP ~ ATP + AMP Keq = [ATP] [AMP] [ADP] 2 Rearranging, [AMP] = [ADP] 2 [ATP] Keq Finally, 31p NMR spectroscopy provides direct measurement of the Pi concentration, and it provides all of the input values allowing us to calculate the values for L\G-ATP and to compare them to known values for the primary ATPases in the cell.
New York: Elsevier Science Publishing; 1993:29-37. 9. Clarke K, Stewart LC, Neubauer S, Balschi JA, Smith TW, Ingwall JS, Nedelec JF, Humphrey SM, Kleber AG, Springer CS, Jr. Extracellular volume and transsarcolemmal proton movement during ischemia and reperfusion: a 31p NMR spectroscopic study of the isovolumic rat heart. NMR in Biomedicine·. 1993;6:278286. 10. Bak MI, Ingwall JS. NMR-invisible ATP in heart: fact or fiction? Am J Physiol. 1992;262:E943-947. 11. Kammermeier H. Microassay of free and total creatine from tissue extracts by combination of chromatography and fluorometric methods.