By Alan E. Steinweis
From 1933 to 1945, the Reich Chamber of tradition exercised a profound impact over millions of German artists and entertainers. Alan Steinweis specializes in the fields of tune, theater, and the visible arts during this first significant examine of Nazi cultural management, studying a fancy development of interplay between prime Nazi figures, German cultural functionaries, traditional artists, and shoppers of tradition. Steinweis supplies certain consciousness to Nazi efforts to purge the humanities of Jews and different so-called undesirables. Steinweis describes the political, specialist, and financial atmosphere during which German artists have been pressured to operate and explains the constitution of determination making, hence displaying in whose curiosity cultural rules have been formulated. He discusses such concerns as assurance, minimal salary statutes, and certification instructions, all of which have been issues of excessive precedence to the paintings professions prior to 1933 in addition to after the Nazi seizure of energy. by way of elucidating the industrial context of cultural lifestyles, Steinweis is helping to provide an explanation for the common acquiescence of German artists to inventive censorship and racial 'purification.' His paintings additionally sheds new gentle at the purge of Jews from German cultural existence.
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Additional resources for Art, Ideology, and Economics in Nazi Germany: The Reich Chambers of Music, Theater, and the Visual Arts
Steinweis. p. cm. Originally presented as the author's thesis (doctoralUniversity of North Carolina, Chapel Hill). Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-8078-2104-7 (cloth: alk. : alk. paper) 1. Arts, German. 2. National socialism and art. 3. Arts-Economic aspectsGermany. I. Title. 943'09043dc2 93-7059 CIP 00 99 98 97 96 6 5 4 3 2 Portions of this book originally appeared in somewhat different form in "The Professional, Social, and Economic Dimensions of Nazi Cultural Policy: The Case of the Reich Theater Chamber," German Studies Review 13, no.
According to the 1933 occupational census, 1 the German work force contained 14,750 visual artists (painters, sculptors, illustrators, graphic artists); 36,088 architects, probably about one-third of whom engaged in "creative" design as opposed to purely technical tasks;2 84,362 musicians, music teachers, and Kapellmeister; 9,499 singers and voice teachers; 5,129 dancers and dance teachers; 10,264 actors; 1,070 theater directors; and 8,301 variety performers (Artisten). Especially in German cities, artistic and cultural enterprises served as significant sources of employment.
The study's simultaneous concentration on three of the Culture Chamber's seven subsidiaries allows for a comparative approach while avoiding too diffuse a focus. 1 Membership of the Reich Chamber of the Visual Arts, ca. 1937 Professional Groups Members Architects 13,750 Landscapers 520 Interior designers 500 Sculptors 3,200 Painters and graphic artists 10,500 Commercial graphic artists 3,500 Pattern designers 1,000 Copyists 230 Art and antique dealers 1,500 Art print dealers 360 Total 35,060 Source: Wulf, Die bildenden Künste, p.