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Download Ancient Europe 8000 B.C.--A.D. 1000: encyclopedia of the by Peter I. Bogucki, Pam J. Crabtree PDF

By Peter I. Bogucki, Pam J. Crabtree

This distinctive encyclopedia is the 1st to discover the numerous peoples of early eu civilization. seen as ''barbarian'' throughout the lens of historic Greece and Rome, those civilizations have been answerable for such accomplishments because the upward push of farming within the Neolithic period and the development of Stonehenge. assurance extends from prehistoric origins throughout the early center a long time (8000 B.C. to A.D. a thousand) while tribal routine helped outline the tip of historic tradition and the increase of the fashionable eu international. manage topically and chronologically Ancient Europe, 8000 B.C. to A.D. 1000 beneficial properties comprise 2 hundred illustrations (including the black & white pictures, colour photographs, and line drawings); 70 maps; a chronology; index; eight-page colour inserts; cartographic endpapers; word list of key archaeological phrases and extra. (20040701)

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Extra info for Ancient Europe 8000 B.C.--A.D. 1000: encyclopedia of the Barbarian world

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There is some evidence for Copper and Bronze Age mining at Sˇpania Dolina and Slovinky in central Slovakia. None of these mines, however, seems to be on the same scale as Bronze Age workings in Austria and Russia. The Mitterberg mines are situated in the Salzach valley, near Salzburg in Austria; here, there are Bronze Age adits up to 100 meters long, and it has been calculated that as much as 18,000 tons of copper were produced in prehistory. 5–2 million tons of ore produced. METALS ANALYSIS AND PROVENANCE A large body of metals analysis exists for prehistoric Europe; the Stuttgart program of spectrographic A N C I E N T E U R O P E S I G N I F I C A N C E O F B R O N Z E analysis, for example, effected some 22,000 analyses.

31 ■ The definition and chronological framework of the Bronze Age is by no means uniform within the archaeological literature. Various areas had different paths and rhythms of change and development, and regional traditions of research influenced the labeling and periodization of the archaeological material in many ways. C. C. C. in central Europe—despite the fact that bronze itself became widespread a few centuries later. C. C. C. Central Europe will be taken here to consist of modern-day Germany, Switzerland, Austria, the Czech Republic, Poland, and Slovakia.

His Late Bronze Age Aegean warriors bear impressive bronze sheet armor, helmets, and shields, which are regularly described as “shining” or “flashing,” The use and possession of metal therefore can be seen as a measure of wealth, and this is particularly true for an area such as Denmark, which was entirely dependent on outside sources for its copper and tin. Such attempts to ascribe value to prehistoric commodities are risky, because we can only speculate on the relative scarcities of raw materials or the cost of labor input and guess at the ritual significance or the biographies of artifacts.

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