By Philip Haygarth, Steven C Jarvis
This booklet is a suite of state of the art stories at the international difficulties of diffuse water toxins from agriculture, which impacts the water caliber of rivers, lakes, reservoirs and the oceans. It comprises chapters on eutrophication, phosphorus, nitrogen, manure, heavy metals, carbon/persistent natural toxins and soil/siltation difficulties. The publication is damaged down into 3 elements and displays the evaluations of the world's specialists in those topics.
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Additional info for Agriculture, Hydrology and Water Quality
S. (1991) Farming, Fertilizers and the Nitrate Problem. CAB International, Wallingford, UK. A. T. (1999) Annual denitrification rates in agricultural and forest soils: a review. Australian Journal of Soil Research 37, 1073–1093. Brouwer, F. and Hellegers, P. (1997) Nitrogen flows at farm level across European Union agriculture. , Simonsen, J. and Vatn, A. (eds) Controlling Mineral Emissions in European Agriculture. Economics, Policies and the Environment. CAB International, Wallingford, UK, pp.
Chap 02 9/9/02 9:29 AM Page 35 Contribution to whole soil P-fraction (%) Phosphorus 35 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 Residual-P H2SO4-P NaOH-P NaHCO3-P DOWEX-P 20 10 0 clay f-silt m-silt c-silt sand Particle size fractions Fig. 1. Distribution of sequentially extracted P fractions in organic-mineral particle size fractions averaged for two soils. Slow organic Primary P minerals Rapid cycling organic inorganic Fertilizer Plants Slow organic Animal manure Secondary P minerals Solution P Microbial P Occluded P Labile and moderately labile inorganic P Labile and moderately labile organic P Chemically and physically protected organic P Fig.
Permanent grassland and biological vs. conventional farming) and rates of P fertilizer/manure application all affect soil P contents and the ratio of inorganic to organic compounds. Inorganic P-containing minerals include the various calcium phosphates, such as Ca(H2PO4)2, CaHPO4, Ca4(HPO4)3 and Ca5(PO4)3OH. The solubility of calcium phosphates depends on pH and the Ca2+ concentrations in soil solution. In alkaline soils, the availability of freshly applied fertilizer P gradually decreases through precipitation of less soluble calcium phos- phates.