By Hermann T. Schlichting, Erich A. Truckenbrodt (transl. by Heinrich J. Ramm)
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Extra resources for Aerodynamics of the Airplane
This interrelation cannot be determined uniquely from theoretical considerations, so it is necessary to look for empirical results. The technically most important wing profiles have, in general, a more or less sharp trailing edge. Then the magnitude of the circulation can be derived from experience, namely, that there is no flow around the trailing edge, but that the fluid flows off the trailing edge smoothly. This is the important Kutta flow-off condition, often just called the Kutta condition.
A) Attached flow. (b) Separated flow. inclined flat plate is the fact that the resultant L of the forces is not perpendicular to the plate, but perpendicular to the direction of the incident flow w.. (Fig. 2-9a). Since only normal forces (pressures) are present on the plate surface in a frictionless flow, it could appear to be likely that the resultant of the forces acts normal to the plate, too. Besides the normal component Py = L cos a, however, there is a tangential component P, = -L sin a that impinges on the plate leading edge.
It always counteracts the rotary motion and is, therefore, also called roll damping. The asymmetric force distribution along the span produces also a yawing moment, the so-called yawing moment due to roll rate. Introducing the dimensionless coefficients according to Eq. (1-21), the stability coefficients of sideslip acmz acMx and aS? asp are obtained. Q is the dimensionless angular velocity cw,. It is obtained from wX, the half-span s, and the flight velocity V: 5Q,; = E. -I, (1-30) V The rotary motion of an airplane about the vertical axis (yaw) produces additional longitudinal air velocities on the wing that have reversed signs on the two wing halves and that result in an asymmetric normal and tangential force distribution along the wing span, which in turn produces a rolling and a yawing moment.