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By Alan Gladwell

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How much current is flowing through the light bulb? 2. How much energy is dissipated by a 10W component in 1 hour? 3. 5 A. 2 kJ of energy is required to heat a litre of water to 100°C. Assuming 100% efficiency, how long does it take to boil 1 litre of water? 4. How much energy is dissipated by a 100Ω resistor in 10 seconds if 2A of current are flowing? 5. 6 x 10-19 C. How long does it take for a mole (6 x 1023 particles) of electrons to flow through a 40W light bulb on a 240V ring main? Resistance and Conductance Conductance is a measure of how well an artefact (such as an electrical component, not a material, such as iron) carries an electric current.

How much charge do 1234 electrons carry? 2. How many electrons does is take to carry 5 C of charge? 3. The total charge on 1 mole of electrons (6 x 1023 particles) is equal to 1 faraday of charge. How many coulombs of charge are equal to 1 faraday? Current Current is the amount of charge (on particles such as electrons) flowing through part of an electric circuit per second. Current is measured in amps (usually abbreviated A), where 1 amp equals 1 coulomb of charge per. second. The formula for current is: ([The triangle (delta) means change in the quantity]) i1 + i4 = i2 + i3 where I = current (A), Q = charge (C) and t = time (seconds).

Potential Difference As charge travels around a circuit, each coulomb of charge carries less energy, so the voltage (relative to the power source) decreases. The difference between the voltage at two points in a circuit is known as potential difference, and can be measured with a voltmeter. Series Circuits In a series circuit, the total voltage (EMF) is divided across the components, as each component causes the voltage to decrease, so each one has a potential difference. The sum of the potential differences across all the components is equal to the potential difference (but batteries have their own 'internal resistances', which complicates things slightly, as we will see).

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