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# Download A Logical Introduction to Proof by Daniel W. Cunningham PDF

By Daniel W. Cunningham

The e-book is meant for college students who are looking to methods to end up theorems and be higher ready for the pains required in additional boost arithmetic. one of many key parts during this textbook is the advance of a strategy to put naked the constitution underpinning the development of an explanation, a lot as diagramming a sentence lays naked its grammatical constitution. Diagramming an explanation is a fashion of offering the relationships among a few of the components of an evidence. an explanation diagram offers a device for exhibiting scholars the best way to write right mathematical proofs.

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Extra resources for A Logical Introduction to Proof

Sample text

Nobody in this class does their homework. 2 Quantifiers 37 Solution. We will express the given six sentences into logical form. We first identify the two predicates that appear in sentences 1–3. ” 1. ” In logical form, we have ∀x(C(x) → A(x)). 2. ” In logical form, we have ∃x(C(x) ∧ A(x)). 3. There are two equivalent ways to restate sentence 3. First, this sentence means that “it is false that some cat is an animal,” that is, ¬(some cat is an animal). In logical form, we obtain ¬∃x(C(x) ∧ A(x)).

P→Q ¬Q ∴ ¬P Solution. In the following truth table we see that whenever all of the premises are true, then the conclusion is also true. 3 Valid and Invalid Arguments 21 Premise 1 Premise 2 Conclusion P Q (P → Q) ¬Q ¬P T T F F T F T F T F T T F T F T F F T T Thus, the argument is valid. An argument is invalid if there is a truth assignment that makes all of the premises true while making the conclusion false. So, to show that an argument is invalid we must find an assignment of truth values, to all the propositional components in the argument, that satisfies all of the premises and does not satisfy the conclusion.

Using these predicates, analyze the logical form of each of the sentences where the universe is the set of all college students. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Everyone in the class is a mathematics major. Someone in the class is a mathematics major. No one in the class is a mathematics major. There a mathematics major who is not in the class. Every mathematics major is in the class. 2 Quantifiers 41 4. Let D = {−48, −14, −8, −2, 0, 1, 3, 7, 10, 12}. Determine which of the following statements are true.